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    Species observed and sighting statistics

    Our long-term and extensive experience as field Biologists and Naturalists through collaborations with staff park throughout the world allow us to provide the traveller the best chances to spot most of the target species of a given ecosystem. However, as we set our actions in an unpredictable, uncontrollable and natural setting, nothing is guaranteed; our aim is to oversee and manage all the operational processes covering all aspects of logistical operations in order to be successful at maximizing our sighting chances.

    It is in this view that we decided to publish, for each itinerary, the data relative to the species observed with their sighting statistics (mainly referred to mammals, but also to the most significant birds and reptiles), to make sure and help travellers to be fully aware what to expect.

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    Northern TanzaniaIndiaNamibia and BotswanaUgandaAmazon and PantanalU.S.A. and the Pacific RegionEcuador and GalapagosSvalbardArctic NorwayPolandSouthern TanzaniaBorneoCentral African Republic

    checklist of Mammals, with rodents, bats, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    Hyracoidea

    Hyraxes (Procavia e Heterohyrax) – 100%, frequent

    Proboscidea

    African bush elephant – 100% frequent

    Primates

    Mantled guereza – 100%, restricted (Arusha NP)

    Anubis baboon – 100%, frequent

    Vervet monkey – 100%, frequent

    Blue monkey – 100%, restricted (Arusha and Lake Manyara)

    Galagos (Galago sp.) – 30% spotlighting

    Lagomorpha

    Hares (Lepus sp.) – 40% mainly by spotlighting

    Carnivora

    Black–backet jackal – 100% , frequent

    Golden jackal – 100%, quite frequent

    Bat–eared fox – 80%, quite frequent

    African wild dog – <5%, we know they are present, but we never spot them in this itinerary

    Honey badger – 5-10%, unlikely

    Lion – 100%, many observations, dozens of individuals

    Leopard – 100%, on average 3-6 observations

    Cheetah – 100%, on average 4-5 observations

    Serval – 50%, on average one observation every 2 trips

    Caracal – very difficult to spot. One remarkable observation (mother with cubs) in Serengeti on summer 2017

    Southern african wildcat – 5%, we sometimes spot it, even if it’s unlikely

    Common genet – only at Ndutu, during winter. In this case it’s almost assured.

    Spotted hyena – 100%, common

    Striped hyena – 10%, mainly by spotlighting

    Aardwolf – 10%, spotlighting

    Egyptian mongoose – 60%, relatively common

    White–tailed mongoose – 10% spotlighting

    Banded mongoose – 100%, relatively common

    Dwarf mongoose – 100%, common

    Perissodactyla

    Plains zebra – 100%, common

    Black Rhino – 85%, restricted. In theory it’s a sure encounter, but sometimes happened we didn’t observe it

    Artiodactyla

    Common warthog – 100%, common

    Bushpig – 10%, mainly at night

    Hippo – 100%, frequent

    Giraffe – 100%, common

    African buffalo – 100%, common

    Lesser kudu – 10%, raraly observed at Tarangire NP; common at Mkomazi (optional)

    Bushbuck – 100%, not in large numbers, but it’s a frequent encounter

    Eland – 100%, abundance varying

    Common duiker – 75%, quite regular, mainly at Arusha NP

    Black–fronted duiker – 50%, restricted to Arusha NP, quick but regular observations

    Steenbok – 80%, relatively common

    Kirk’s Dik Dik – 100%, common

    Thomson’s gazelle – 100%, ommon

    Grant’s gazelle – 100%, common

    Gerenuk – 25%, recently easily spotted. At Mkomazi (optional) 100%

    Reedbuck (bohor) – 100%, never in large numbers

    Waterbuck – 100%, both sub–species, common

    Klipspringer – 100%, relatively restricted

    Impala – 100%, common

    Topi – 100%, common

    Kongoni – 100%, common

    Common wildebeest – 100%, common

    Oryx beisa – 5-10%, unlikely, towards Lake Natron

    checklist of Mammals, checklist of Mammals, with rodents, bats, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    Proboscidea

    Asian elephant – 100% (Kaziranga)

    Primates

    Hoolock gibbon– ?%, it exclusively depends on the access to the Panari forest (Assam), actually with access restrictions.

    Rhesus macaque – 100%, common

    Assamese macaque – 50%, locally common

    Common langur – 100%, common

    Capped langur – 20%, in theory locally common, in practice not easy to spot

    Lagomorpha

    Indian hare – 75%, common but elusive

    Carnivora

    Bengal tiger – 100%, on average 3-5(7) observations. 13 observations in 2017

    Asiatic lion– 100%, on average 3-4 observations

    Leopard – 75%, we spotted it each year, but not always by all the participants

    Jungle cat – 60–70%, common, but elusive

    Mongoose (Herpestes spp) – 100%, not always the same species among H. smithi, H. edwardsii e H. auropunctatus

    Striped hyena – 35%, prudential estimate

    Wolf – 75%, elusive species, nt easy to spot. We observed it regularly, but usually they are far off in the distance

    Golden jackal – 100%, common

    Sloth bear – 75%, we spotted it each year, but not always by all the participants

    Otters – 100%, usually identified as Aonyx cinerea

    Perissodactyla

    Greater one–horned rhino – 100%, locally common

    Artiodactyla

    Muntjac – 100%, elusive but common

    Sambar – 100%, common

    Barasingha – 100%, locally common

    Chital – 100%, common

    Hog deer – 100%, locally common

    Gaur – 100%, regularly observed

    Wild water buffalo – 100%, locally common

    Nilgai – 100%, common in Gujarat, regularly observed in other areas

    Four–horned antelope – 30%, really elusive

    Indian gazelle – 25%, not common, spotted outside natural reserves

    Blackbuck – 100%, locally common

    Indian wild boar – 100%, common

    checklist of Mammals, with rodents, bats, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    The following informations are based on the trip of 2016; the notes derived by our experience of contacting the species during the trip and are enriched by recent experiences of colleagues in the same areas.

    Hyracoidea

    Hyraxes (Procavia e Heterohyrax) – 100%, not frequent, Namibia

    Proboscidea

    African bush elephant – 100% frequent

    Primates

    Chacma baboon – 100%, frequent

    Vervet monkey – 100%, frequent

    Lagomorpha

    Hares (Lepus sp) – 40% prevalentemente spotlighting

    Carnivora

    Black–backet jackal – 100% , very frequent

    Bat–eared fox – 100%, quite frequent

    African wild dog – 90–100%, 5 observations in 4 days (Botswana)

    Cape fox –? %, 1 quick observation

    Honey badger – 100%, many different observations

    Lion – 100%, many different observations

    Leopard – 50%, one observation, but based on available informations we have been unlucky

    Cheetah – 50%, 3 individuals observed, in two different situations

    Spotted hyena – 100%, not particolarmente common

    Brown hyena – ?%, 1 nocturnal observation, but it seems not common

    Egyptian mongoose – 60%, relatively common

    Banded mongoose – 100%, relatively common

    Dwarf mongoose – 100%, common

    Slender mongoose – 100%, common

    Yellow mongoose – ?%, 1 observation, but it should not be rare

    Perissodactyla

    Plains zebra – 100%, common

    Mountain zebra (Hartmann) – 100%, not particularly common

    Black rhino – 100%, observed in many different occasions

    White rhino – 100%, less frequent than black, but still quite likely

    Artiodactyla

    Common warthog – 100%, common

    Hippo – 100%, frequent

    Giraffe – 100%, common

    African buffalo – 100%, common

    Greater kudu– 100%, common

    Sitatunga – ?% , restricted (Okavango). We spotted it easily, but we lack elements for inferring the likelihood of this encounter

    Steenbok – 100%, relatively common

    Dik Dik (Damara) – 100%, common but restricted

    Springbuck – 100%, common

    Southern reedbuck – 50%, apparently not difficult to contact (Botswana)

    Waterbuck – 100%, common

    Lechwe – 100%, common (Botswana)

    Klipspringer – 50%, relatively restricted

    Impala – 100%, common (“black face” in Namibia, possibly a distinct species)

    Tsessebe– 100%, not common

    Khama (Red hartebeest) – 100%, common

    Common wildebeest – 100%, common

    Gemsbok – 100%, very common

    Roan antelope – 80% spotted in several occasions, but never in large numbers

    checklist of Mammals, with rodents, bats, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    Proboscidea

    African bush elephant – 100% frequent

    African forest elephant – 25%, in Queen Elizabeth NP and Kibale NP

    Primates

    Mountain gorilla – 100% close interaction on foot and in natural conditions

    Common chimpanzee – 100% close interaction on foot and in natural conditions

    Gray–cheeked mangabey – 100%, restricted

    Mantled guereza – 100%, common

    Central African red colobus – 100%, restricted

    Anubis baboon – 100%, frequent

    Patas monkey – 90%, restricted (Murchison falls NP)

    Tantalus monkey – 100%, frequent

    Blue monkey – 50%, restricted

    L’Hoest monkey – >80%, rare species, but regularly spotted

    Red–tailed monkey – 100%, elusive but frequent

    Dent’s monkey – 25% only at Semuliki NP

    Galagos (Galagidae) – 30% spotlighting

    Lagomorpha

    Hares (Lepus sp) – 40% mainly by spotlighting

    Carnivora

    Black–backet jackal – 100% , frequent

    Bat–eared fox – 40%, relatively not frequent

    Speckle–throated otter – 80%, elusive but common in some areas

    Lion – 100%, on average 2–3 observation per trip

    Leopard – 30%, mainly elusive

    Southern african wildcat – <5%, we spotted it once at night by spotlighting

    Genet (Genetta sp) – 30%, spotlighting

    African civet – 25%, mainly nocturnal

    Spotted hyena – 25%, not common

    Egyptian mongoose – 50%, relatively common

    White–tailed mongoose – 20% spotlighting

    Banded mongoose – 80%, relatively common

    Dwarf mongoose – 80%, common, restricted

    Slender mongoose – 50%, relatively common

    Pousargues’s mongoose – 20% only at Semuliki

    Perissodactyla                     

    Plains zebra – 100%, common but restricetd (Lake Mburo)

    White rhino – 100%, restricted. It is a reintroduced population, hosted in a 70 sqkm reserve

    Artiodactyla

    Common warthog – 100%, common

    Bushpig – 20%, usually at night

    Giant forest hog – 50%, restricetd

    Hippo – 100%, frequent

    Giraffe (Rotschild)– 100%, common but restricetd (Murchison falls NP)

    African buffalo – 100%, common, also the forest subspecies (S. caffer nanus)

    Bushbuck – 100%, common

    Eland – 75%, elusive and restricted (Lake Mburo)

    Sitatunga – it needs a deviation and deddicated observation sessions. In this scenario 100%, otherwise unlikely

    Weyns’s duiker – 50%, unpredictable but not infrequent

    Common duiker – 50%, not common

    Oribi – 100%, common

    Kob (ugandan) – 100%, large numbers

    Waterbuck – 100%, common

    Impala – 100%, common but restricted (Lake Mburo)

    Topi – 100%, common

    Lelwel hartebeest– 100%, restricted (Murchison falls NP)

    checklist of Mammals, with rodents, bats, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    • Before the departure it is essential to know that South America has peculiar zoological characteristics, i.e. it lacks megafauna on the scale of Africa, due to paleozoogeographic events. Brasil in particular has the highest terrestrial biodiversity on Earth (3022 species of vertebrates, fish excluded). It harbours 457 species of mammals, with 73% of bats, robents and marsupials. Most of the fauna (on land) that can be observed in daylight are primates, xenartri, ungulates and carnivores, while few species can be ascribed abelong to the megafauna. The biodiversity of birds, reptiles and amphibians is probably the highest on Earth.

    Carnivora

    Jaguar (Panthera onca) – 3 remarkable observations, at Taiamà Riserve and on Rio Paraguay. On Rio Paraguay statistics averages 40-50% EACH DAY. We spotted it also in 2016 (2 different individuals). 12 close observations (9 different individuals) along the Rio Cuiabà in 2017 and 21 close observations (17 different individuals) in two different expeditions in 2018

    Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) – 1 sighting in 2018

    Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis) – Rio Paraguay and Pantanal

    Giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) – Pantanal

    Tayra (Eira barbara) – Pantanal

    Crab–eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus) – Pantanal (spotlighting)

    Crab–eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) – Pantanal (spotlighting)

    South american coati (Nasua nasua) – Pantanal

    Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) – Chapada dos Guimaraes (one close and prolonged diurnal sighting)

    Perissodactyla

    Brazilian tapir (Tapyrus terrestris) – Pantanal

    Artiodactyla

    Marsh deer (Blastoceros dichotomus) – Pantanal

    Red brocket deer (Mazama americana) – Pantanal

    Gray (brown) brocket deer (Mazama guazoubira) – Pantanal

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) – Pantanal

    Cetacea

    Inia or Amazon river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) – Rio Negro, Rio Solimoes, Amazon

    Tucuxì (Sotalia fluviatilis) – Rio Negro, Rio Solimoes, Amazon

    Rodentia (some remarkable taxa)

    Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) – Pantanal

    Azara’s agouti (Dasyprocta azarae) – Pantanal

    Northern amazon red squirrel (Sciurus igniventris) – Amazon

    Brazilian guinea pig (Cavia aperea) – Chapada dos Guimaraes

    Lagomorpha

    Tapeti (Sylvilagus brasiliensis) – Pantanal

    Chiroptera (some remarkable taxa)

    Greater bulldog bat (Noctilio leporinus) – Pantanal, Rio Paraguay

    Xenarthra

    Yellow armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus) – Pantanal

    Giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) – Pantanal

    Southern tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) – Pantanal

    Brown–throated three–toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) – Amazon

    Primates

    Black-tailed marmoset (Mico melanura) – Pantanal, Rio Paraguay

    Black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) – Pantanal

    Juara Red howler monkey (Alouatta juara) – Amazon

    Squirrel monkey (Saimiri cassiquierensis or macrodon) – Amazon

    Black squirrel monkey (Saimiri vanzolinii) – Amazon

    Black–capped capuchin (Sapajus apella) – Amazon

    Hooded capuchin (Sapajus cay) – Pantanal

    Large–headed capuchin (Sapajus macrocephalus) – Amazon

    Bald–headed uakari (Cacajao calvus) – Amazon, rare and elusive. Always spotted except in 2016.

    White–cheeked spider monkey (Ateles marginatus) – Amazon

    checklist of Mammals, with rodents, bats, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    Carnivora

    Coyote – 100%, different observations per trip

    Wolf – 100%, prolonged observations(1–2 observations per trip)

    American black bear – 100%, usually several observations

    Grizzly – 100%, several observations, usually they are far off in the distance

    Northern fur seal – 20%

    California sea lion– 100%

    Harbor seal – 100%

    Northern elephant seal – 100%

    Raccoon – 90%, mainly nocturnal

    Sea otter – 100%

    Bobcat – 20%, spotted occasionally, even 2 in one trip. Unpredictable.

    Artiodactyla

    Wapiti – 100%

    Mule deer (incl. the mule deer of the pacific coast) – 100%

    Moose– 70%, 1 or 2 individuals observed regularly; populations with few individuals in the area of interest

    Pronghorn – 100%

    American bison – 100%

    Mountain goat – it needs a deviation; in that case 100%

    Bighorn – 100%, quantity and quality of sightings variables

    Cetacea

    Blue whale – 80/100%, seasonal presence, 100% after mid– august

    Humpback – 100%

    Fin whale – 40%, statistics at Monterey are higher, our records are <20%

    Common dolphin (D. delphis + D. capensis) – 100%, common

    Risso’s dolphin – 40%

    White–sided dolphin – 25%

    Bottlenose dolphin – 30%

    Northern right whale dolphin, Dall’s porpoise, Killer whale – <10%

    Lagomorpha

    Cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.) – 80%

    Jackrabbit (Lepus sp.) – 80%

    Rodentia (some remarkable taxa)

    Chipmunk (Tamias spp) – 100%, different species difficult to distinguish apart

    Yellow– bellied marmot – 80%

    California ground squirrel – 100%

    Golden–mantled round squirrel – 100%

    Prairie dog – 90%, regularly observed during the last trips

    Western gray squirrel – 80%

    Douglas squirrel (Chikaree) – 100%

    North american beaver – ?% generally not spotted; dams easy to spot

    checklist of Mammals, with rodents, bats, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    • The itinerary is not focused on mammals, even if it touches some of the most biodiverse areas on Earth. Highlights of Galapagos are represented by endemic birds and reptiles, in addition to a stunning and easy to observe marine fauna. The Cloud Forest represents a rich immersion in one of the most spectacular endemic avifauna on Earth, with some unique mammals restricted to these areas.
    • The optional 4-days long trip extension to the Amazon forest promises a full immersion on foot into the ecosystem with the highest biodiversity on this planet. It represents a top destination for primates, birds (with different Ara and Toucan species), reptiles and amphibians.
    • We built this itinerary just a while ago, thus the following data are the results of our 2016 and 2017 trips.

    The Vicugna (Vicugna vicugna) have been spotted during the Ande’s trip extension in 2017

    Mammals

    Galapagos sea lion– 100%, Galapagos

    Bottlenose dolphin – 30%, Galapagos

    Bryde’s whale – 20%, Galapagos

    Tayra – 100% Cloud forest

    Kinkajou – 100% Cloud forest

    Olinguito – 100% Cloud forest

    South american coati – one sighting with many individuals, Amazon

    White– lipped peccari – many different individuals, Amazon

    Paca – one sighting (spotlighting), Amazon

    Wolly monkey – different observations, Amazon

    Squirrel monkey – different observations, Amazon

    Spider monkey – different and prolonged observations, Amazon

    White–fronted capuchin monkey – 2 sightings, Amazon

    Titi monkey (Callicebus discolor) – 1 sighting, 2 individuals, Amazon

    Equatorial saki monkey – 1 sighting, 2 individuals, Amazon

    Red howler monkey – different sightings, Amazon

    Vicugna (Vicugna vicugna) – different sightings, Andes

    Reptiles (some remarkable taxa)

    Marine iguana (different subspecies) – 100%

    Land iguana – 100%

    Santa Fe land iguana – 100%

    Galapagos lava lizard (different taxa) – 100%

    Galapagos giant tortoise – 100%

    Green sea turtles – 100%

    Galapagos racer (Alsophis sp) – 30%

    Anolis spp – 100% Cloud forest

    Green anaconda – 1 sighting, Amazon

    Charapa turtles (Podocnemis sp.) – common, Amazon

    Spectacled caiman – common, Amazon

    Birds of Galàpagos (some remarkable taxa) – usually sure and close up sightings

    Galapagos penguin

    Waved albatross (only in the eastern itinerary and in summer)

    Magnificent frigatebird

    Great frigatebird

    Brown pelican

    Blue–footed booby

    Red–footed booby

    Nazca booby

    Lava gull

    Swallow–tailed gull

    Darwin’s finches (at least 6 species)

    Galapagos dove

    Galapagos hawk

    Galapagos short–eared owl

    Red–billed tropicbird

    Flightless cormorant (only in western itinerary)

    Galapagos mockingbird (different species)

    American flamingo

    checklist of Mammals, with rodents, bats, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    • This itinerary stretches in a fascinating and extrem ecosystem, where encounters with species of great interest are frequent even if on average individual abundance is lower than in the tropics. Statistic is based on the       2015 and 2016 trip editions, and strengthened by local staff data. The number given in bold font represents our sighting percentage for each species; the normal font is the statistic integrated with available data, when different.

    Mammals

    Polar bear – 100%, from 4 to 9 individuals observed per trip

    Arctic fox – 100% 4–8 individuals observed per trip

    Svalbard reindeer – 100%, common

    Walrus – 100%, 2-3 encounters per trip, many dozens of individuals

    Ringed seal – 100/80%, common, observed in 2015, 2016 and 2017, but 1 or 2 individuals.

    Harbor seal – 50/30%, restricted. The sightings depends on the choice to go ashore in the right places.

    Bearded seal – 100%, 3–6 sightings per trip

    Harp seal – 100%, common, but elusive

    Hooded seal – 50/20%. We spotted it in 2015 and 2017, but the encounter seems non common

    Beluga – 0/20%, considered the most common whale, it is regularly spotted in the area even if we only found it in 2017 (more than 80 individuals)

    Narwhal – 0/5%, unlkely. A possibile sighting (not confirmed) in 2016

    Blue whale – 50%, several indipendent observations in 2015 and 2017, none in 2016 (but adverse weather conditions in the area)

    Fin whale – 100/80%, several indipendent observations in 2015, one in 2016 (but adverse weather conditions in the area), many individuals in 2017

    Mink whale – 50%, 4–5 several indipendent observations in 2015 and 2017, none in 2016 (but adverse weather conditions in the area)

    Humpback – 100%, 2–3 sightings per trip

    Muskox – 100%, Dovrefjell

    Elk – 100%, Dovrefjell

    Reindeer (R. tarandus tarandus) – 50/20%, Dovrefjell, extremely elusive

    Roe deer – 100%, Dovrefjell

    Red fox – 50%, Dovrefjell

    Birds (some relevant taxa)

    Ivory gull – 100%

    Glaucous gull – 100%

    Skua (arctic, pomarine, great) – 100%

    Pink–footed goose – 100%

    Barnacle goose – 100%

    Brent goose – 90-100%

    Brünnich’s guillemot – 100%

    Black guillemot – 100%

    Little auk – 100%

    Snow bunting – 100%

    Arctic stern – 100%

    Northern fulmar – 100%

    Atlantic puffin – 100%

    checklist of Mammals, with rodents, bats, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    The following list refers to the winter trip. Northern lights are always visible.

    Mammals

    Killer whale – 100%

    Humpback – 100%

    Fin whale – 80%

    Sperm whale – 25% (3 sightings in 2017)

    Harbor seal – 100%

    Elk – 50%

    European otter – 75%

    Birds (some remarkable taxa)

    White–tailed eagle – 100%

    Common eider – 100%

    King eider – 100%

    Glaucous gull – 100%

    Fulmar – 100%

    checklist of Mammals, with rodents, bats, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    Mammals

    European biosn (Wisent) – 100%

    Elk – 100%

    Eurasian beaver– 100%

    Red deer – 80%

    Roe deer – 100%

    Wild boar 100%

    Red fox – 60%

    Other carnivores (badger, stone marten, otter, wolf, raccoon dog) – 15%

    Birds (some relevant taxa)

    White–tailed eagle –100%

    Bewick’s swan –100%

    Crane – 100%

    Black woodpecker – 70%

    Rough–legged buzzard –100%

    checklist of Mammals, with rodents, bats, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    This is an unusual, off the beaten path itinerary. We propose it occasionally and upon request, thus our statistics are weak. The following notes refer to the 2015 expedition, and are enriched by wildlife observations made on our recent experiences in the same areas.

    Hyracoidea

    Hyraxes (Procavia e Heterohyrax) – common

    Proboscidea

    African bush elephant – frequent

    Macroscelidea

    Black and rufous elephant shrew – frequent

    Primates

    Angola colobus (C.a. palliatus) – quite common

    Udzungwa red colobus – restricted but quite common

    Sanje mangabey – restricted but easily observed

    Yellow baboon – frequent

    Vervet monkey – frequent

    Blue monkey – not frequent

    Brown greater galago – spotlighting

    Northern greater galago – spotlighting

    Carnivora

    Black–backet jackal – frequent

    Bat–eared fox – not rare, but not observed in 2015

    African wild dog – we know they are present, but we never spot them

    Lion – 100%, many different observations, hunting dynamics included

    Leopard – very good observations, but generally one observation per trip. Elusive.

    Spotted hyena – common

    Brown hyena – ?%, 1 nocturnal observation, but it seems not common

    Slender mongoose – relatively common

    Banded mongoose – relatively common

    Dwarf mongoose – common

    Perissodactyla

    Plains zebra – common

    Artiodactyla

    Common warthog – common

    Hippo – frequent

    Giraffe – common

    African buffalo – common

    Greater kudu – common

    Bushbuck – regularly observed, but not in large numbers

    Eland – unpredictable, fluctuating numbers

    Common duiker – not common

    Red forest duiker – regularly observed at Saadani, not scheduled anymore

    Kirk’s Dik Dik – common

    Grant’s gazelle – common, but highly mobile. Not observed in 2015

    Reedbuck (bohor) – regulary observed, never in large numbers

    Waterbuck – both subspecies, common

    Impala – common

    Lichtenstein’s hartebeest – not common, but regularly observed

    Common wildebeest – common

    checklist of Mammals, with, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    *the following list refers to the 2017 trip.

    Sunda clouded leopard (2 individuals, both observed for several minutes)

    Leopard cat (4 individuals)

    Flat – headed cat (1 brief sighting)

    Malay civet

    Common palm civet

    Banded palm civet

    Binturong

    Moonrat

    Large flying fox

    Prevost’s squirrel

    Plantain squirrel

    Red giant flying squirrel

    Thomas’s flying squirrel

    Black flying squirrel

    Sunda flying lemur

    Bearded pig

    Borneo elephant

    Sambar

    Bornean yellow muntjac

    Greater mouse – deer

    Proboscis monkey

    Maroon langur

    Silvered langur

    Pig – tailed macaque

    Long – tailed macaque

    Slow loris

    Bornean Orangutan (5 sightings)

    Müller’s Bornean gibbon

    In addition: more than 100 bird species spotted and photographed, and many reptiles including Flying lizard, Reticulated python, Mangrove snake, Saltwater crocodile, etc.

    checklist of Mammals, with, Soricomorpha (shrews and moles), Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures) excluded.

    *the following list refers to the 2017 trip.

    Lowland western gorilla

    Grey – cheeked mangabey

    Agile mangabey

    Mantled guereza (occidentalis)

    Greater spot – nosed monkey

    Moustached guenon

    African forest elephant

    African forest buffalo

    Blue duiker

    Sitatunga

    Lady Burton’s rope squirrel

    Red – legged sun squirrel

    Lord Derby’s scaly – tailed squirrel

    Black hawk bat

    Long – tailed pangolin

    Disclaimer: the robustness in the statistics depends on our repeat visits to the same destination and the effective chances to spot an animal. 100% referred to a given animal means that species has been always observed all the times we explore the area, and we are confident this statistic will apply for the future years ahead. However, wildlife sightings is notoriously unpredictable, and, when needed, we added some more details to each data.